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It is often highlighted that some aspects of PTAs, such as transparency obligations and liberalization in services and investment, either are nonpreferential by nature, are easily extended to nonmembers on ratification, or benefit all economic actors by increasing predictability in the trading system.16 For developing countries, it is argued, PTAs may serve as a vehicle to lock in reforms that result in greater foreign direct investment (FDI) and reap economies of scale before countries are prepared to liberalize at the multilateral level.17
Developed members wish to share the burden of development with large emerging economies. To that end, they want to categorize developing members based on the sophistication of their economies and their capacity for growth and development. These categories are meant to help channel resources to the countries with the greatest need and provide the basis for a mechanism for the lifting of market access privileges. This is indispensable, according to developed members, if S&DT is to eventually enable all WTO agreements to apply universally.
Many in the industrialized world acknowledge their responsibility to spearhead the green transformation and support developing countries with the resources they need to grow in a climate-responsible manner. However, the rise of emerging powers, which introduce a greater diversity of interests into the core councils of governance, complicates the issue of equity in climate action. For industrialized countries, the developmental progress and the new power-political positions of emerging markets have transformed the notions of fairness and legitimacy in climate politics and made the binary worldview based on developing versus developed countries outdated. The current system, which gives rapidly growing emerging powers the same emissions rights as the less developed while binding industrialized economies to lower emissions, has given rise to concerns about competitiveness.
Members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries want industrialized economies to pursue policies that would minimize the welfare losses of developing countries that depend on petroleum exports. The BASIC states divided when Brazil and South Africa accepted greater responsibility than India and China, although all defend the differentiation framework agreed at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. In a globally welcomed development, Beijing pledged in September 2020 to reach carbon neutrality by 2060.101
Having already adopted measures toward greener economies, developing countries oppose additional international obligations to constrain their growth and permit greater scrutiny of their emissions. The primary responsibility for global emissions reductions cannot be passed onto them, these countries argue, because while several emerging powers have caught up with industrialized nations on production-related emissions, the gap in per capita and consumption-related emissions remains wide.
The 36th Division landed in French North Africa on 13 April 1943, and trained at Arzew and Rabat. However, the training was hampered by the need to supply guards for some 25,000 Axis prisoners of war (POWs) who had surrendered at the conclusion of the Tunisian campaign in May. It was assigned to Major General Ernest J. Dawley's VI Corps, part of the Fifth Army, but attached to the Services of Supply, North African Theater of Operations, United States Army (NATOUSA), for supply. The 36th Division was originally intended to take part in the Allied invasion of Sicily, codenamed Operation Husky, but Lieutenant General George S. Patton the Seventh Army commander, preferred to use experienced troops instead and the 36th Division remained in North Africa. The Fifth Army was commanded by Lieutenant General Mark W. Clark, who knew the 36th Division well from his time as chief of staff to Lieutenant General Lesley J. McNair, commander of Army Ground Forces, and specifically chose the 36th Division, rather than the more experienced 34th Infantry Division, together with the British 46th and 56th Infantry Divisions, to spearhead the Allied assault landings at Salerno, Italy, which was given the codename of Operation Avalanche.
On 15 August 1944, as part of the U.S. 6th Army Group, the division made another amphibious assault landing, against light opposition in the Saint-Raphaël-Fréjus area of southern France as part of Operation Dragoon, the Allied invasion of Southern France. A rapid advance opened the Rhone River Valley. Montelimar fell, 28 August, and large German units were trapped. On 15 September, the division was attached to the French First Army. The 36th advanced to the Moselle River at Remiremont and the foothills of the Vosges. On 30 September, the 442nd Regimental Combat Team (442nd RCT, a Japanese-American unit) was assigned to the 36th to help shore up the division. The 442nd was subsequently used to spearhead the capture towns of Bruyères and Biffontaine where they faced stiff opposition. On 24 October the 143rd Infantry relieved the 100th and 3rd Battalion who were sent to Belmont, another small town to the north, for some short-lived rest. On 23 October the 1st Battalion, 141st Infantry were cut off just beyond the town or Biffontaine. On 27 October the 442nd RCT was called back in to save this Lost Battalion. On the afternoon of 30 October 3rd Battalion broke through and reached 1st Battalion, 141st, rescuing 211 T-Patchers at the cost of 800 men in five days. However, the fighting continued for the 442nd as they moved past the 141st Infantry. The drive continued until they reached Saint-Die on 17 November when they were finally pulled back. The 100th fielded 1,432 men shortly before, but was now down to 239 infantrymen and 21 officers. The 2nd Battalion was down to 316 riflemen and 17 officers, while not a single company in the 3rd Battalion had over 100 riflemen; the entire 100th/442nd Regimental Combat Team was down to less than 800 soldiers. On 13 October 1944, when attached to the 36th Infantry Division, the unit was at 2,943 rifleman and officers, but in only three weeks 140 were killed and 1,800 were wounded, while 43 were missing. For this action, the 442nd RCT would earn 3 of its 7 Presidential Unit Citations. 350c69d7ab