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Hafez Yari
Hafez Yari

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When you have body dysmorphic disorder, you intensely focus on your appearance and body image, repeatedly checking the mirror, grooming or seeking reassurance, sometimes for many hours each day. Your perceived flaw and the repetitive behaviors cause you significant distress and impact your ability to function in your daily life.

It's not known specifically what causes body dysmorphic disorder. Like many other mental health conditions, body dysmorphic disorder may result from a combination of issues, such as a family history of the disorder, negative evaluations or experiences about your body or self-image, and abnormal brain function or abnormal levels of the brain chemical called serotonin.

Previous research has asserted the importance of both body shape (e.g. WHR) and size (e.g. BMI) [10,13,14], but has not addressed the role of fat and muscle composition in determining these size and shape preferences. The reliance on BMI as a measure of body size in research addressing the attractiveness and health of bodies is problematic for two main reasons. First, BMI does not differentiate between fat and muscle, such that two individuals with the same BMI may have very different levels of fat and muscle in their bodies. A recent study found that 29% of people classified as lean using a traditional BMI scale had levels of body fat usually associated with obesity [20]. Conversely, individuals with high muscle mass may be incorrectly classified as obese when using BMI as an index of weight status [21]. Second, the formula underestimates the risk of obesity-related morbidity in shorter people and overestimates this risk in taller people [22].

Men have approximately 60% more muscle mass than women [27,28]. High muscle mass in men is associated with various positive health outcomes, including increased physical fitness, longevity [2,37] and a decreased risk of developing some diseases [38]. High muscle mass in men is also associated with indicators of mating success, including positive body image [19,39,40], and a higher number of sexual partners [28]. Conversely, very high levels of muscularity are associated with up to 50% higher dietary energy requirements [28], and extreme testosterone levels, which increase with muscle mass, and are associated with poor immune system activity [28,41].

A significant interaction was found between composition dimension and body sex, F(1,61) = 645.49, p < .001, ηp2 .91. Observers chose lower fat mass than muscle mass for both male, t(62) = 58.67, p < .001, and female, t(62) = 75.09, p < .001, bodies, in line with the usual composition of human bodies. Observers chose slightly lower fat mass for female (M = 10.31kg, SD = 3.84) than male (M = 12.16kg, SD = 4.69) bodies, t(62) = 3.81, p < .001) and much lower muscle mass for female (M = 42.45kg, SD = 1.63) than male (M = 63.27kg, SD = 4.06) bodies, t(62) = 45.60, p < .001, reflecting the fact that, for their size, observers chose a higher proportion of fat mass for female than male bodies.

Male observers in the current study preferred a lower male body mass for both health and attractiveness trials than did female observers. Although one early and one more recent study found no differences in preferences for male body size and shape as a function of observer sex [11,54], evidence in this regard is limited and these discrepant findings warrant further investigation.

Appearance-related social pressure plays an important role in the development of a negative body image and self-esteem as well as severe mental disorders during adolescence (e.g. eating disorders, depression). Identifying who is particularly affected by social pressure can improve targeted prevention and intervention, but findings have either been lacking or controversial. Thus the aim of this study is to provide a detailed picture of gender, weight, and age-related variations in the perception of appearance-related social pressure by peers and parents.

The results suggest that preventive eff


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